What is __new__ python Method: A Comprehensive Guide

What is __new__ python Method

Python is a versatile programming language known for its simplicity and readability. It offers various built-in functions and methods that enhance its flexibility. One such method is the ‘__new__' method, which plays a crucial role in object creation and initialization. In this article, we will delve into the details of the ‘__new__' method, its syntax, and provide examples to help you understand its usage.

Introduction to the __new__ Python Method

The ‘__new__' method is a special method in Python that is responsible for creating and initializing an instance of a class. It is a static method that gets called before the ‘__init__' method during object creation. Unlike the ‘__init__' method, which initializes the attributes of an object, the primary purpose of the ‘__new__' method is to create and return a new instance of the class.

Syntax of the __new__ Python Method

The syntax of the ‘__new__' method is as follows:

Here, ‘cls' refers to the class itself, while ‘*args' and’ **kwargs' allow passing arguments to the method if required.

How the __new__ Python Method Works

When an object is created using the class constructor, Python internally calls the ‘__new__' method to allocate memory and create an instance. The ‘__new__' method returns an instance of the class, which is then passed as the first argument (‘self') to the ‘__init__' method for further initialization.

Examples of Using the __new__ Python Method

Let’s explore some examples to understand the practical usage of the ‘__new__' method:

Example 1: Customizing Object Creation

class CustomClass:
    def __new__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
        # Custom logic to create a new instance
        instance = super().__new__(cls)
        # Additional custom initialization code
        return instance

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        # Initialization code

In this example, we override the ‘__new__' method to customize the object creation process. By calling the superclass’s ‘__new__' method, we ensure that the instance is created correctly. Then, we can perform additional custom initialization if needed.

Example 2: Singleton Design Pattern

class SingletonClass:
    instance = None

    def __new__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
        if not cls.instance:
            cls.instance = super().__new__(cls)
        return cls.instance

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        # Initialization code

Here, we implement the Singleton design pattern using the ‘__new__' method. The ‘__new__' method checks if an instance of the class already exists. If not, it creates a new instance; otherwise, it returns the existing instance. This ensures that only one instance of the class exists throughout the program.

Advantages and Use Cases of the __new__ Python Method

The ‘__new__' method provides several advantages and can be used in various scenarios:

  • Customizing object creation process
  • Implementing design patterns like Singleton, Factory, or Prototype
  • Memory management and low-level object control

Common Pitfalls and Best Practices

When using the ‘__new__' method, keep the following best practices in mind:

  • Be cautious with overriding the ‘__new__' method, as it affects the fundamental object creation process.
  • Avoid unnecessary complexity and stick to simplicity whenever possible.
  • Document your custom ‘__new__' method thoroughly to enhance code maintainability.


The ‘__new__' method is a powerful tool in Python that allows customization of object creation and initialization. By understanding its syntax and usage, you can leverage this method to implement advanced features in your programs. Remember to use it judiciously and follow best practices to maintain code clarity and readability.

Related FAQs

Q1: Can we skip the ‘__new__' method and directly use the ‘__init__' method for object creation?

Yes, it is possible to skip the ‘__new__' method and rely solely on the ‘__init__' method for object creation. However, the ‘__new__' method offers additional flexibility and control over the object creation process.

Q2: Can we override the __new__ method in built-in Python classes?

No, it is generally not recommended to override the ‘__new__' method in built-in Python classes. It is best to use the method in user-defined classes for custom object creation and initialization.

Q3: What is the difference between the ‘__new__' method and the ‘__init__' method?

The ‘__new__' method is responsible for creating an instance of a class, while the ‘__init__' method is used for initializing the attributes of that instance. The ‘__new__' method is called before ‘__init__' during object creation.

Q4: Can we create multiple instances using the ‘__new__' method?

Yes, the ‘__new__' method can create multiple instances of a class. It depends on the custom logic implemented in the method.

Q5: Is the ‘__new__' method specific to Python?

No, the ‘__new__' method is a concept specific to Python. It is not available in all programming languages.


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