What Is A Class In Python – Step By Step Guide


Python is a flexible and popular programming language that supports object-oriented programming (OOP) through the idea of “classes.” It’s essential to comprehend classes if you want to learn Python’s OOP. In this guide, we will take you through an in-depth exploration of what is a class in Python, step by step. By the end, you’ll have a solid understanding of classes, their importance, and how to use them effectively.

What is a Class in Python?

In Python, a class is a set of instructions for building objects. It specifies a collection of properties (variables) and operations (functions) that describe an object’s behaviour. Consider a class as a template that enables you to construct numerous instances (objects) with comparable attributes and characteristics. This idea serves as the basis for object-oriented programming, which enables you to write modular, maintainable code.

The Components of a Class

1. Class Name

The class’s name acts as an identification number. It should ideally describe the nature of the things it represents and be written in CamelCase.

2. Attributes

Variables called attributes are used to store information about the class. They specify the properties of objects produced by the class. When establishing an object, attributes can be given default values or set manually.

3. Methods

Functions defined within a class are called methods. They specify the operations or behaviours that objects belonging to the class are capable of. The attributes can be manipulated via methods, changing their values.

4. Constructor (init)

When an object is formed, a particular method called the constructor is invoked. It establishes the initial values for the attributes of the object. The __init__ constructor method is called.

5. Destructor (del)

The destructor method, __del__, is called when an object is about to be destroyed. It performs cleanup tasks and releases resources used by the object.

Creating a Class

Creating a class involves defining its attributes and methods. Let’s create a simple class named Car as an example:

class Car:
    def __init__(self, make, model, year):
        self.make = make
        self.model = model
        self.year = year

    def start_engine(self):
        print(f"The {self.make} {self.model}'s engine is running.")

    def stop_engine(self):
        print(f"The {self.make} {self.model}'s engine is stopped.")

In this example, the Car class has attributes makemodel, and year, along with methods start_engine and stop_engine.

Using a Class to Create Objects

After defining a class, you can create objects (instances) based on that class. Here’s how to create instances of the Car class:

# Creating car objects
car1 = Car("Toyota", "Camry", 2023)
car2 = Car("Tesla", "Model 3", 2023)

Accessing Attributes and Calling Methods

You can access attributes and call methods using the dot notation. For example:

# Accessing attributes and calling methods
print(car1.make)  # Output: Toyota
car2.start_engine()  # Output: The Tesla Model 3's engine is running.

Inheritance: Building on Classes

By using inheritance, you can make a new class that inherits the attributes and methods of an existing one. This fosters modularity and encourages code reuse.


Q: What’s the purpose of using classes in Python?
A: Classes provide a structured way to model real-world entities, organize code, and enable object-oriented programming principles.

Q: Can a class inherit from multiple parent classes?
A: Yes, Python supports multiple inheritance, where a class can inherit attributes and methods from more than one parent class.

Q: Are classes only used in object-oriented programming?
A: Yes, classes are a fundamental concept in object-oriented programming and play a central role in creating and managing objects.

Q: What is encapsulation in classes?
A: Encapsulation refers to the bundling of attributes and methods within a class, hiding the internal implementation details from the outside world.

Q: How does polymorphism relate to classes?
A: Polymorphism allows objects of different classes to be treated as instances of a common superclass, enabling code flexibility and reusability.

Q: Are classes in Python limited to a specific scope?
A: No, classes can be defined at any level in your Python code and used wherever needed.


In this comprehensive guide, we’ve explored the What is a Class in Python, breaking down their components, creation, usage, and significance. With this knowledge, you’re well-equipped to embrace object-oriented programming and build robust, modular, and efficient Python applications.

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